Invasion of Faith Issues 1-5

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But they were able to survive because of Muslim disunity. Several crusaders, among them Stephen of Blois who had retreated at Antioch, arrived in to complete their pilgrimage vow in reaching Jerusalem and assist Baldwin in consolidating the region. Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla in May , achieving an honorable death.

King Baldwin secured a lifeline to Europe with the capture of several Mediterranean ports, including the natural harbor of Acre in , which would become the center of trade for the Kingdom. He also captured Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon in and incorporated the cities into the Kingdom of Jerusalem. King Baldwin I was concerned about the dearth of inhabitants in Jerusalem, for there were not enough people to carry on the daily activities and function of the city.

He learned that there were many Christians living in servitude beyond the Jordan in Arabia. He invited them to live in the Holy City and promised them freedom and improved living conditions. They readily accepted his offer and the city benefited from their arrival.

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The only one to stay loyal to Emperor Alexius, he was invited to Constantinople and turned Latakia over to the Byzantines. Upon his return, he set his sights on Tripoli, and built a fortress called Mount Pilgrim near the city. Mary Latin. In he captured ancient Byblos, named Jubail in Arabic, where the first Crusader castle of Gibelet was built. The fourth Crusader State, the County of Tripoli , was established. He brought his wife Morphia of Melitene, Armenia and their daughters with him to Jerusalem, and appointed his cousin Joscelin of Courtenay as the new Count of Edessa.

During his reign he helped found the Templar Knights and granted them space in the Temple of Solomon. A major victory was the capture of Tyre in Lebanon during the summer of Prior to his death in , Baldwin II designated his oldest daughter Melisende , her husband Fulk, and 2 year-old grandson Baldwin as his heirs.

Melisende as Queen regnant and her husband Fulk V of Anjou were anointed and crowned, the first coronation in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on September 14, They had two sons, Baldwin and Amaury. Baldwin III became sole ruler over Easter season in , with his mother continuing in an advisory capacity. His most notable achievement was the capture of Ascalon from the Egyptian Fatimids in , finally giving the Kingdom of Jerusalem full control of the coast of Palestine.

He also improved relations with the Byzantine Empire. An important event was the foundation of the military orders , instituted to defend Outremer and protect the renewed flow of pilgrims into the Holy Land. The military orders were composed of monks who served as knights or performed religious, clerical, and civic functions, as well as the lay who assisted the knights.

The Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem in Monks under Brother Gerard provided staffing and cared for ill and injured pilgrims, crusaders, and the populace. They were recognized in by Pope Paschal II. In time they added a military function under Raymond of Le Puy. The Knights Hospitaller wore a white cross and protected pilgrims who entered Jerusalem. The Knights Templar were French knights and likely the first to perform military service; instituted in under Hugh of Payens, they wore a red cross and were responsible for the defense of Jerusalem. The Order of St.

Lazarus was primarily a charitable organization and staffed a hospital for victims of leprosy. They maintained their headquarters in the City of Acre until Thomas of Acre were named after the English martyr St. The Knights of the Hospital of St. King Baldwin I built the castle at Montreal in Jordan in , an important site along the caravan trade route from Egypt to the Levant. Important to defense, subsequent Latin leaders continued to produce Crusader castles throughout their territories.

Fulcher of Chartres wrote in his third book prior to his death in , "Consider, I pray, and reflect how in our time God has transferred the West into the East. For we who were Occidentals now have been made Orientals. He who was a Roman or a Frank is now a Galilaean, or an inhabitant of Palestine Some have taken wives not merely of their own people, but Syrians, or Armenians, or even Saracens who have received the grace of baptism There are here too grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

One cultivates vines, the other the fields. The one and the other use mutually the speech and idioms of the different languages Those who were strangers are now natives; and he who was a sojourner now has become a resident Therefore why should one who has found the East so favorable return to the West? Therefore God wishes to enrich us all and draw us to Himself as his most dear friends. And because He wishes it, we also freely desire the same; and what is pleasing to Him we do with a loving and submissive heart, that with Him we may reign happily throughout eternity. William of Tyre made the point that "a state of tranquility" occurred during her reign.

Anne Church in Jerusalem when her youngest sister Yvette lived there, and building the Church and convent of St. Lazarus at Bethany where Yvette eventually served as abbess. She was naturally supportive of the construction of the Armenian Cathedral of St. James in the southwest quarter during the s. Both the Armenian Cathedral and the Holy Sepulchre were restored about the same time. There is registered in her name an endowment to the Orthodox monastery of St.

Sabas in Jerusalem. The building and renovation of Churches throughout the Holy Land served as a priority for the Latin States.

Enduring Word Bible Commentary Habakkuk Chapter 1

More than churches were either built, restored, or in use during the Latin Crusader period. Fifty years after the capture of Jerusalem, the Crusaders dedicated the church in Romanesque architecture on 15 July The Church one visits today is the one built by the Crusaders!

Fulk and Melisende's second son King Amaury of Jerusalem was also artistically inclined and joined the Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus and Bishop Ralph of Bethlehem in sponsoring a complete redecoration of the Church of the Nativity. John the Baptist at Sebastiya, the Church of St. Anne at Sephoris, and the Church of the Resurrection at Nablus.

He also recognized the artistic ability of William of Tyre and, in addition to appointing him tutor to his son Baldwin, urged him to write his famous Historia. He appointed him Chancellor of Jerusalem in He offered the same absolution and remission of sins as Urban II to those who went to confession and took up the Cross to the Holy Land, as well as the protection of the Church for wives and property. On the way to the Holy Land, a fleet of ships from England led by Hervey de Glanvill, Constable of Suffolk, was forced to land in Portugal because of bad weather.

Relations with the Byzantine Emperor Manuel remained uneasy throughout the Crusade. The unruly German army was massacred by the Turks at Dorylaeum in Asia Minor, although Conrad and a small contingent survived. In view of their reduced force, they decided to attack Damascus.

Louis and Conrad set out for Damascus on July 24, , but their lack of coordination forced them to retreat within four days! The greatest warrior of the Muslims was Saladin. Noted for his chivalrous behavior, he was respected by both Muslims and Christians alike. Saladin also proved to be a skilled diplomat. The Muslim world was completely divided into the Shiite and Sunni religious sects, as well as the warring secular nations of the Syrians, Egyptians, and Turks.

Saladin was the one who brought all of them into one unified Islamic force in the twelfth century. Shirkuh became vizier of Egypt, the secular head of government under the Shiite Caliph. Shirkuh died shortly thereafter in , leaving his 31 year-old nephew Saladin as vizier of Egypt. Saladin was a Sunni Muslim in the predominantly Shiite land of Egypt.

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When the Shiite Caliph of Egypt died, Saladin extended the spiritual authority of the Sunni Caliph of Baghdad over Egypt, but at the same time allowed the Shiites to practice their own form of Islamic faith. The religious world of Islam was united. Saladin, the new Sultan of Egypt and Syria, had united the Arab world. His rise to power signaled the beginning of the Ayyubid Dynasty.

Upon the death of his father, Baldwin IV succeeded as King , but he suffered from leprosy first observed by his tutor William of Tyre. The boy King Baldwin V died at age 8 in Queen Sibylla and her husband Guy of Lusignan seized the crown.

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Saladin set his sights on the Crusader states. He first attacked Tiberias in the county of Tripoli in Guy of Lusignan and the Frankish army foolishly rode out into the desert to the Horns of Hattin , and, deprived of water, were no match for Saladin, who defeated the Franks and captured the True Cross on July 4, Saladin ordered the execution of the Templars and Hospitallers. Guy of Lusignan and the Templar Master were held captive. Unopposed, all the Crusader cities except Tyre fell to Saladin's army as he swept through the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

At first intent on unconditional surrender, Saladin attacked Jerusalem on September 20, But after ten days of heavy resistance by Balian of Ibelin, Saladin agreed to a financial settlement and captured the city October 2, The inhabitants of Jerusalem were spared from major bloodshed and injury! He placed able representatives in England, Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine to rule during his absence. Several disagreements between Richard and Philip on the way to the Holy Land affected their cooperation and the Third Crusade. The port city of Acre was once known as Ptolemais in Biblical times, and served as a stop on the final return of St.

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Paul to Jerusalem Acts The Crusaders were encamped on the coast, between the fortified City of Acre and Saladin about six miles east on land. King Frederick of Germany crossed the Dardanelles into Asia but drowned in a river in June of near Tarsus on the way to Antioch, and his German army largely dispersed; only a small German contingent arrived in Acre in October of led by his son Frederick of Swabia.

However, Frederick died of illness 3 months later; his cousin Duke Leopold V of Austria on his arrival in the spring assumed leadership of the German troops. King Philip sailed directly to the city of Acre and arrived on April 20, , which improved the morale of the Crusaders. A storm had separated the fleet, and a few of his ships ran aground on Cyprus. The sailors were arrested and imprisoned by the local lord.

Upon his arrival, the King freed his men and secured the city. Richard and Berengaria celebrated their marriage on May 12, in the chapel of St. The island stayed in crusader hands for nearly years until , when the widow of the last Lusignan King James II turned it over to the Venetians. Cyprus proved to be of great strategic importance, for it served as a staging post and supply station for the Crusaders through the years. His great energy inspired the troops and Acre surrendered after nearly two years on July 12, The terms were that Saladin was to return the True Cross, release Christian prisoners, and provide ransom for Muslim hostages within 30 days.